Anatomy of foot and ankle perforator veins

Jean-François UHL1 Miguel LO VUOLO2 Claude GILLOT1 1 URDIA Anatomy Research Unit EA4465, Descartes University, Paris Cité Sorbonne 2 Diagnóstico por Imágenes Junín, Santa Fe, Argentina Abstract Background: The foot venous pump is located in the plantar veins, where both its anatomy and connections with the saphenous roots and the foot perforator veins are not well known, and therefore, they are under investigated in daily practice. The aim of this paper is to describe the unique anatomy and the functional role of the foot perforator veins and emphasize their key role during the activation of the foot venous pump. Ankle…

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The venous system of the foot: anatomy, physiology, and clinical aspects

The venous system of the foot: anatomy, physiology, and clinical aspects Stefano RICCI Ambulatorio Flebologico Rome, Italy Abstract Venous return from the foot is worthy of interest for both research and clinical purposes. This review summarizes the available knowledge of venous return from the foot with a special focus on research and clinical implications. The anatomy and physiology of venous return are described with an emphasis on the differences between standing and walking and the interplay between the venous systems of both the foot and the calf. Selected conditions of clinical interest are discussed and mechanistically interpreted, including the distinctive…

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Focus on venous embryogenesis of the human lower limbs

Focus on venous embryogenesis of the human lower limbs Jean-François UHL Descartes University Paris, France Abstract Embryogenesis of the venous system is a complex phenomenon that is not fully understood. In spite of the studies done by Born, Hochstetter, and Lewis, we do not know the precise chain of events leading to vasculogenesis of the venous network in humans. Yet, this is an important topic in order to improve our anatomical knowledge, which is of the highest interest in clinical practice. A good knowledge of anatomy is mandatory to perform in-depth assessments of chronic venous disorders by ultrasound mapping. Understanding…

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